ქართ | Eng

ISSN 2449-2396 (Print) | E ISSN 2449-2612 (Online)

JEL Classifications: K1


https://doi.org/10.35945/gb.2021.11.005



THE DANGER OF THE PRIVACY "DISAPPEARANCE" DURING A PANDEMIC IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION AND THE GROUNDS FOR ITS LEGITIMACY: AN INSTITUTIONAL ANALYSIS

Author: Mikheil Bichia | Published: 2021-07-15 | Pages: 43 - 49

Full Text

For Citation: Bichia M. (2021). The danger of the privacy "disappearance" during a pandemic in the context of globalization and the grounds for its legitimacy: An institutional Analysis, Globalization and Business, 11:43-49. https://doi.org/10.35945/gb.2021.11.005

Abstract

Protection of the private sphere has become particularly important in the context of the pandemic, due, on the one hand, to the increasing use of technical means and, on the other, to the use of personal data to prevent infection. Accordingly, the purpose of the study is to define the scope of the concept of a private sphere in order to determine which relationships the public sphere applies to and when privacy begins. In this context, it must be clarified what the reasons are for intervening in the private sphere during the pandemic and whether a limitation of the right can be considered permissible (legal).

Using normative-dogmatic, comparative, sociological methods, as well as analysis and synthesis of problems, it was established that the public and private spheres intersect in the information society, which makes it difficult to separate these spheres. However, the increased use of technology during the pandemic was found to pose a greater threat of interference in the private sphere. In this regard, it is important to establish strong and effective cybersecurity mechanisms. Thus, it is true that technological development benefits society and is perceived as a good thing, but at the same time contains the threat of invasion of privacy. This is especially true for the use of personal data during a pandemic to ensure public health. In this case, a conflict of interest arises between the private sphere and public health, which must be resolved by careful examination of the case and taking into account the principle of proportionality, so as not to violate an unreasonable right.

A study of European practice has shown that interference in the private sphere is permissible if the restriction of the right (a) legally, (b) serves the legitimate public interest, (c) such restriction is necessary in a democratic society through the application of other, less restrictive measures. In this regard, it is advisable to determine the priority interest on the basis of a scrupulous analysis using the weighing method and the circumstances outlined above, which will prevent unreasonable interference with someone's rights.


Keywords

Privacy, Personal Data, Technological Development, Legality of Intervention


References

Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights "Protocol of San Salvador", Adopted in San Salvador on November 17, 1988, <https://legal.un.org/avl/studymaterials/rcil-laac/2016/book1_2.pdf> (03.12.2020).

Akhvlediani, M., (2011). Constitutional Guarantees of the Right to Health Care in Georgia, Doctoral Dissertation, Tbilisi (In Georgian).

Bartik, A. W., Bertrand, M., Cullen, Zoë B., Glaeser, E. L., Luca, M. and Stanton, C., (2020). The Impact of COVID-19 on Small Business Outcomes and Expectations. “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences”. 117, #30:17656-17666, https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2006991117 (04.05.2020).

Bichia, M., (2011). Scopes of the private life concept according to Georgian Legislation and judicial Practice, “Journal of Law”, N1:58-59 (In English).

Bichia, M., (2012). Protection of Personal Life according to Georgian Civil Law, Tbilisi, Bona Causa:121, 327 (In Georgian).

Bichia, M., (2013). Conflict of Values between the Freedom of expression and right to privacy, “Justice and Law”, N3:131 (In Georgian).

Bichia, M., (2017). The Problem of Civil Legal Protection of Personal Data in the Internet Universe, In: VIII International scientific and practical conference: "Internet and society":35-42 (In Georgian).

Biriuk v. Lithuania, 25/11/2008.

Boon, G. J., Brunnermeier, M. K., Eidenmueller, H., Enriques, L., Aurelio, G.-M., Judge, K., Landau, J. P., Pagano, M., Reis, R. & Zwieten, K., van. (2020). The Covid-19 Pandemic and Business Law: A Series of Posts from the Oxford Business Law Blog, Oxford Legal Studies Research Paper NO. 15:1-34.

Constitution of Georgia, Article 15, 24 August 1995 (Last edition), N786-rs (In Georgian).

Demirsoy, N. and Kirimlioglu, N., (2016). Protection of privacy and confidentiality as a patient right: physicians' and nurses' viewpoints, Biomedical Research- India, Vol. 27, Issue 4:1437-1438.

European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights and Council of Europe. (2018). Handbook on European data protection law, Luxembourg:83-88.

Fasciaux, N., (2020). What is Germany doing better to save lives from COVID-19? https://storytracker.solutionsjournalism.org/collections/al0c8q6ql2 (07.12.2020).

Froomkin, A.M., (2000). “The Death of Privacy?” Stanford Law Review, 52:1461-1543.

General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995.

Georgia Department of Law - Consumer Protection Division, Cybersecurity in Georgia, A guide for small Business, Non-profits and Places of Worship, 7, http://consumer.ga.gov/uploads/pdf/Cybersecurity_in_Georgia.pdf

Gerke, S., Stern, Ariel D., Minssen, T., (2020). Germany’s digital health reforms in the COVID-19 era: lessons and opportunities for other countries, npj Digital Medicine, 94:1, 5.

Hermann, P., Morse, D., & Jackman, T., (2020). Patrolling the beat while keeping a distance: Police officers face new rules, rhythms amid pandemic. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/public-safety/patrolling-the-beat-while-keeping-a-distance-police-officers-face-new-rules-rhythms-amid-pandemic/2020/03/27/334b3602-6afc-11ea-abef-020f086a3fab_story.html (08.09.2020).

Hornby, A., (2002). Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary, Oxford, New York, Oxford university press.

Jennings, G., Wesley and Perez, M. Nicholas., (2020). The Immediate Impact of COVID-19 on Law Enforcment in the United States, American Journal of Criminal Justice, 10.1007/s12103-020-09536-2

 Judgment of the Constitutional Court of Georgia 241/2/519 of 24 October 2012, Case of the Georgian Young Lawyers' Association and Citizen of Georgia Tamar Chugoshvili v. the Parliament of Georgia (In Georgian).

Judgment of the Constitutional Court of Georgia N1/1/1505/1515, 1516, 1529 of 11 February 2021, Case of Paata Diasamidze, Giorgi Chitidze, Eduard Marikashvili and Lika Sajaia v. the Parliament of Georgia and the Government of Georgia (In Georgian).

Judgment of the Constitutional Court of Georgia N1/3/407 of 26 December 2007, Case of the Georgian Young Lawyers' Association and Citizen of Georgia Ekaterine Lomtatidze v the Parliament of Georgia, II-26 (In Georgian).

Klonowska, K. and Bindt, P., (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic: two waves of technological responses in the European Union, The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies, 11.

Koops, B. J. and Leenes, R., (2005). ‘Code’ and the slow erosion of Privacy, 12 Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review:184.

Kübler, Fr., (1999). Ehrenschutz, Selbstbestimmung und Demokratie, NJW, 52. Jahrgang, 1. Halbband, 1285 (In German).

Law of Georgia on Personal Data Protection, Article 2 (a), 28 December 2011 No 5669-ES (In Georgian).

Law of Georgia on Public Health, Article 3 (a), 453 (3), 27 June 2007, No5069-rs (In Georgian).

Lesch, W., (1998). Medienethik zwischen öffentlichem und Privatem, Im Zoom K&M Nr. 11, 45, <http://www.medienheft.ch/uploads/media/11_ZOOM_KM_08_Walter_Lesch_Medienethik.pdf>  (06.04.2011) (In German).

Long, C., (2020). Privacy and Pandemics, In: Pistor, Katharina, “Law in the Time of COVID-19”, 90-97, <https://scholarship.lawcolumbia.edu/books/240> (05.12.2020).

 Napetvaridze, V. and Chochia, A., (2019). Cybersecurity in the making – policy and law: A Case study of Georgia, ICLR, Vol. 19, No. 2, S. 156.

Nougrères, A. B., (2016). Data Protection and Enforcement in Latin America and in Uruguay, In: Wright D. and Hert P. De (editors), Enforcing, Privacy, Springer, Cham.

Paulus, G.  Chr. and Zenker, W., (2001). Grenzen der Privatautonomie, JuS, 41. Jahrgang, Heft 1, S. 2-4 (In German).

Peyer, C., (2007). Die Bildberichterstattung über Prominente im Spannungsfeld von Privatsphärenschutz und Presse­freiheit, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der „Caroline von Hannover“– Entscheidung des EGMR und der Reaktionen in der deutschen Lehre, Seminar zum Thema: „Menschenrechtsschutz in Europa“, Wintersemester, 13 (In German).

Pfordten, Dietmar von der., (2009). Zur Würde des Menschen bei Kant, In Fünf Untersuchungen “Menschenwürde, Recht und Staat bei Kant”, 1. Auflage, Mentis, Paderborn, Verlag C.H. Beck (In German).

Prins, C., (2006). “When personal data, behavior and virtual identities become a commodity: Would a property rights approach matter?” SCRIPT-ed, Volume 3, Issue 4, 278.

Rödle &Partner., (2020). Coronavirus (COVID -19), It Is Treatable – State Aid Programs To Mitigate Adverse Effects On Your Business Latest updates on current status | Nordic-Baltic region:7-8.

Rössler, B., (2001). Der Wert des Privaten, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp (In German).

Sauerbrey, A., (2020). “Germany has relatively few deaths from Coronavirus. Why?” The New York Times, https://storytracker.solutionsjournalism.org/stories/germany-has-relatively-few-deaths-from-coronavirus-why (07.12.2020).

Schaar, P., (2007). Das Ende der Privatspȁhre, Der Weg in die Ȕberwachungsgeselschaft, München (In German).

S. and Marper v. the United Kingdom, 04/12/2008.

Schiedermair, S., (2012). Der Schutz des Privaten als internationals Grundrecht, Mohr Sieback Tübingen (In German).

Sun, Z, David Strang K. & Pambel F., (2018). Privacy and security in the big data paradigm, Journal of Computer Information Systems:1-9, DOI: 10.1080/08874417.2017.1418631 

Tzanou, M., (2017). The Fundamental Right to Data Protection, Oxford and Portland, Oregon, pp. 14-15.

Verwaltungsgericht Berlin, Entscheidung vom 20.05.2020 - VG 14 L 97.20 (In German).

Weber, K., (2007). Grundlagen der Informations-ethik, China, Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, September (In German).

Globalization & Business European University European University European University mes.gov.ge erih plus mes.gov.ge EBSCO index copernicus Google Scholar Crossref Open Academic Journals Index Scientific Indexing Services International Scientific Indexing Daugavpils University